ការបោះឆ្នោតក្លែងក្លាយ ដែលនាំមកនូវប្រព័ន្ធឯកបក្ស / Fake elections leading to a one-party system (*)
ថ្ងៃអាទិត្យ ២៦ ឧសភា ២០១៩ នេះ មានការរៀបចំការបោះឆ្នោតជ្រើសរើសសមាជិកក្រុមប្រឹក្សា រាជធានី-ខេត្ត ក្រុង-ស្រុក-ខណ្ឌ។ នេះជាការបោះឆ្នោតក្លែងក្លាយ លើកទី៣ នៅកម្ពុជា បន្ទាប់ពីរបប ហ៊ុន សែន បានរំលាយគណបក្សសង្គ្រោះជាតិ ដោយអត្តនោម័ត នៅថ្ងៃ ១៦ វិច្ឆិកា ២០១៧។ ការបោះឆ្នោតក្លែងក្លាយ លើកទី១ គឺការបោះឆ្នោតព្រឹទ្ធសភា នៅថ្ងៃ ២៥ កុម្ភៈ ២០១៨។ ការបោះឆ្នោតក្លែងក្លាយ លើកទី២ គឺការបោះឆ្នោតតំណាងរាស្ត្រ នៅថ្ងៃ ២៩ កក្កដា ២០១៨។ ការបោះឆ្នោតក្លែងក្លាយទាំង ៣ លើកនោះ ធ្វើឲ្យគណបក្សកាន់អំណាច ទទួលបានកៅអី ១០០ ភាគរយ នៅគ្រប់ស្ថាប័នរដ្ឋ ពីថ្នាក់ជាតិ ដល់ថ្នាក់មូលដ្ឋាន។ សូមមើលការពន្យល់ ក្នុងតារាងខាងក្រោមនេះ។ (*) This Sunday 26 May 2019 there is an election to renew municipal, provincial, town and district councils. This is the third fake election to take place in Cambodia following the arbitrary dissolution of the opposition CNRP on 16 November 2017. The first fake election was the last Senate election which took place on 25 February 2018. The second fake election was the last National Assembly election which was held on 29 July 2018 without the participation of the CNRP. These three consecutive fake elections have allowed the ruling CPP to “win” 100% of the seats up for grabs at all State institutions from national to local levels. (See explanations in the chart below).
Workers carry ballot boxes to be distributed to polling stations in Jakarta, Indonesia, Tuesday, April 16, 2019. Nearly 193 million Indonesians are eligible to vote in presidential and legislative elections on Wednesday. President Joko Widodo, the first Indonesian president from outside the Jakarta elite, is competing against Prabowo Subianto, a former special forces general from the era of authoritarian rule under military dictator Suharto. (Achmad Ibrahim/Associated Press) By Niniek Karmini | APApril 16
JAKARTA, Indonesia — Indonesia’s Election Supervision Agency said Tuesday about 320,000 overseas voters in neighboring Malaysia’s biggest city should vote again in presidential and legislative elections after finding evidence that postal ballots had been tampered with.
Election officials rushed to Malaysia last week to investigate claims of vote fraud after videos circulated online showed thousands of ballots for Wednesday’s elections scattered throughout a shophouse.
Opposition party representatives said the ballots for Indonesians living in Kuala Lumpur were marked in favor of President Joko Widodo, who is campaigning for re-election, and a legislative candidate who is the son of Indonesia’s ambassador to Malaysia.
The agency “found legal ballot papers that allegedly were marked by non-legitimate voters at two locations in Selangor, Malaysia,” said Rahmat Bagja, one of the agency’s commissioners.
He said that requirements for the elections to be free, fair and honest were violated and recommended that Indonesia’s Election Commission dismiss two members of the election organizing committee in Kuala Lumpur to avoid conflicts of interest.
One of them is Indonesia’s deputy ambassador to Malaysia, Krishna Hannan.
The Election Commission is responsible for organizing elections and the Election Supervision Agency is responsible for overseeing them.
About 193 million Indonesians are eligible to vote in the elections for president, the Senate and national, provincial and district legislatures.
Opinion polls show Widodo has a large lead over his challenger, former special forces general Prabowo Subianto, whose campaign has repeatedly alleged major irregularities with voter rolls.
Bagja said the overseas vote in Sydney should be reopened because many expatriate Indonesians in the Australian city were unable to cast ballots in time.
This story has been corrected to show that the organization is the Election Supervision Agency, not Election Commission.
Copyright 2019 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.
Overseas Indonesians vote for country’s next president
Elections in Indonesia: 2019 Concurrent Presidential and Legislative Elections
On April 17, Indonesian citizens will go to the polls to elect both the next president and vice president as well as national and subnational legislators in 34 provinces and 514 regencies and municipalities.
This is the first time since Indonesia’s transition to democracy that presidential and legislative elections will be held on the same day.
A hundred thousand Thais have registered to vote from overseas in the March 24 election, led by those residing in Sydney, according to the Foreign Ministry. Registration for overseas voting online and at 94 Thai embassies, consulates and trade and economic offices worldwide took place from Jan 28 to Tuesday.
A total of 119,184 Thais registered to vote, led by those in Sydney (10,256), London (7,926) Tokyo (6,048), Canberra (5,927), Los Angeles (5,668), Singapore (4,763), Kuala Lumpur (4,139) and Washington (4,122).
BANGKOK — Election officials are on the defensive after overseas voters complained angrily about a raft of problems including missing ballots, incorrect candidate information and poor voting facilities.
Two weeks before polls open at home, #OverseasVoting was trending atop Thai Twitter on Monday with many comments slamming the Election Commission and diplomatic missions for mismanaging early voting.
“Student body elections at school look more organized than this election,” Twitter user @Litentoyou wrote.
Criticism blew up after a student in China tweeted Saturday about the obstacles to voting, including a ballot that didn’t come until nearly a week after voting began. The student said more than 500 voters registered to vote in Shanghai hadn’t received them at all.
“This election is the most transparent ever,” @TheKopfer wrote, sarcastically.
The Foreign Affairs Ministry said the problems reported in China were due to missing voter contact information, adding that all but five voters in Shanghai had received their ballots by Sunday.
“I [dislike] this commission the most. Salaries so high, but they work sloppily, like children,” @Newthinkkn wrote. “They spent 12 million to study elections in other countries and look what happened.”
Dissatisfaction over widespread reported mishaps fed existing concerns about the commission’s ability to stage a credible election at home in just two weeks. It comes days after it invited scorn by canceling important meetings because six members were traveling abroad at a cost of about 12 million baht.
Muangphum Hansiriphet, who heads a Thai student association in Nanjing, called onlinefor an investigation into problems there. He said that while helping the consulate locate voters, he learned information entered by voters in online registration forms had gone missing or become unreadable when the commission submitted it to the diplomatic mission.
The Thai Embassy in Kuala Lumpur was forced to open Sunday for additional votingbecause it couldn’t accommodate the thousands who turned up the prior day. Many voters complained of waiting for hours and questioned why the commission couldn’t do better despite knowing how many people would vote.
Officials were shown using cardboard boxes to set up makeshift voting booths in photos posted online, reportedly because they didn’t receive enough from the commission, further stoking public outrage.
Without commenting on the cause of the problem, head commissioner Jarungvith Phumma said using a cardboard box was not illegal. He said it just didn’t “look very pleasant.”
He also said the commission was looking into several complaints regarding confusing documents listing candidates and their numbers for voters in London and New York.
Photos of the documents show some of the candidates names and photos did not appear next to their party names. For example, Parit “Itim” Wacharasindhu, who heads the Democrat Party’s youth wing, did not appear next to his party’s name. Instead it appeared above a candidate for the pro-establishment People Progressive Party.
“This error isn’t limited only to me but other candidates from other parties,” he said. “Every vote is valuable. … I hope the Election Commission and other related agencies take responsibility for this case.”
Nearly 82,000 people have registered to vote overseas, according to the commission. The vote is closing on March 16.
Thais in Australia top overseas voter registration
Thai voters head to the polls Sunday for the first time in nearly five years, and analysts say the results could have an impact on democracy throughout Southeast Asia.
Thailand’s military junta took power in May 2014, when then-army chief Prayut Chan-ocha led a coup that toppled the government. Observers see the coming elections as a struggle between democracy and military rule.
Prayut, now seeking the premiership, has said that if he wins, voters would be returning his junta-led country to a “democracy.”
Thailand is a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, and pro-democracy advocates within the trading bloc are paying close attention to the vote, despite its policy of noninterference in members’ internal affairs.
The ASEAN Post, an independent regional digital media company in Kuala Lumpur, recently noted that freedom of expression, peaceful assembly and press freedom had deteriorated since the junta seized power, initiating the longest period of army rule in modern Thai history.
“Several hundred activists and dissidents have since been called national security threats and faced serious criminal charges such as sedition, computer-related crimes and lese majeste [insulting the monarchy] for peaceful expression of their views,” it noted in a recent opinion piece.
The coup — Thailand’s 13th since 1932 — ousted then-Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra and caused international outrage. The pending elections, the military hopes, will fix that.
The election framework echoes the 2015 ballot in neighboring Myanmar, where hopes of democratic freedom were dashed by a military that has maintained an overarching influence on a civilian administration, through its allotted seats in parliament.
A more drastic story has unfolded along Thailand’s eastern border.
Cambodia was returned to a one-party state last year after the main opposition party was banned from competing at elections, media outlets were closed and political dissidents were jailed, raising the prospect of U.S.- and European-imposed sanctions.
Elections will also be held in Indonesia in April, and midterm polls are to be held a month later in the Philippines, where the separation of powers — a cornerstone in any democracy — has foundered amid the government’s war on drugs.
Singapore has been ruled by the same party since independence in 1965. Of the remaining non-democratic countries, communist Vietnam and Laos have initiated crackdowns on dissent, while Islamic Brunei has instituted sharia.
David Welsh, country director in Southeast Asia for the Solidarity Center, a nonprofit that seeks to help build a global labor movement, said human rights were a major concern ahead of looming elections, and that the strong-arm from governments favoring big business were affecting workers and trade union issues.
“The prospects for business and trade are probably pretty good. The prospects for labor laws and worker protection aren’t, although I’ve been pleasantly surprised by what’s happened in Malaysia, so let’s see,” Welsh said.
Malaysia emerged as one the few democratic bright spots among the 10 members of ASEAN after the electorate, which tired of allegations of gross corruption, stunned pollsters and ousted Prime Minister Najib Razak, who is now facing trial.
“The situation of remittances and debt in the Cambodian context in the short run can be viewed positively as it helps migrant families ensure their living requirements [are met], such as food, transport, and accommodation,” wrote Lor Samnang, the lead researcher.
But in the long term, Samnang found that families become over-indebted as loans are used to finance unprofitable ventures.
The study found that families receiving remittances saw an average increase in debt of 6 percent.
Some 2 million Cambodians work overseas in countries such as Thailand, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore, predominantly in low-paid jobs such as construction, fisheries, manufacturing, farming, and the service industry.
They send home more than $400 million annually, according to the World Bank.
“Debt has forced many into migration, but what we’ve found is not only that,” said Ou Virak, president of the Future Forum. “We’ve found out that those who have migrated are indebted even further after they have more money. It’s now not only debt that has forced them to migrate, but migration is putting them deeper in debt.”
The Coalition of Cambodian Farmer Community, a farmers association, said debt was the second most important issue facing farmers after lack of market access for their produce.
“The main factor is their livelihood, which is getting harder and harder,” said Theng Savoeun, coordinator of Coalition of Cambodian Farmer Community. “Their agricultural work in rural areas is getting tougher. Their rice or agricultural products do not have enough market. These have forced them to migrate or seek other jobs.”
Formal lenders may charge interest rates as high as 20 percent per annum, while informal lenders often charge more.
“Prices do not enable our farmers to make more profit to pay their debt,” said agriculture expert Yang Saign Koma, chairman of the board of directors of the Grassroots Democracy Party. “We’ve seen this getting worse and worse. At the end of the month, they are worried about finding money to repay debt. This will become a big catastrophe for Cambodia in the next four or five years.”
Former opposition politicians have criticized Cambodian agricultural policy for its failure to find markets for farmers and boost production.
“This is a big deal,” said Mu Sochua, vice president of the banned Cambodia National Rescue Party. “People migrate because of debt. The debt is not used only for meeting the needs of their agriculture, but to pay for other services like health and education for their children. These should be free, but they are not available.”
The study also found that only about a third of loans were used to finance economic activities, with most of the debt going on essentials and non-profitable spending. It recommends a financial literacy program and support from major financial institutions and the authorities.
“At the moment I see that this is a topic that must be debated to pressure banking institutions, especially microfinance, to pay more attention before giving out loans,” said Virak. “They are worried to lose their money when people are unable to pay back and they cannot confiscate their houses or rice fields or farm. Therefore they must be cautious.
“I believe that putting pressure on the banks is a more effective measure.”